The vegetation on the Sululta plain comprises grasses, sedges and other species such as the endemic Trifolium schimperi, Haplocarpha schimperi and Cerastium spp. The most important grasses are Pennisetum spp. and Andropogon spp. In some areas the water reaches 50 cm deep, and such areas are often covered with floating grasses, particularly Odontelytrum abyssinicum, Potamogeton spp. and Aponogeton abyssinicus.
The riverbanks are better drained than the surrounding areas and thus support small bushes, scramblers and the occasional tree. The highland areas surrounding the valleys are intensively cropped.
Crop production is heavily dependent on a large population of cattle, which provide oxen for ploughing, and manure that is put on selected fields. The wide valleys provide these cattle with important grazing. Sedges and rushes are used extensively to cover the floors of houses. In Sululta, the farmers cut and bale the mixture of grasses, sedges and herbs, and sell it to the numerous dairy farmers in Addis Ababa.
Birds of Sululta Plain
Between July and October, 10–15 pairs of Sarothrura ayresi breed at one seasonal wetland, the only location currently known for the species in Ethiopia. Rougetius rougetii is an uncommon resident which has apparently declined, possibly due to changing land-use. However, the population of Macronyx flavicollis is stable, and the bird is not uncommon.
Gallinago media occurs on passage from July to October in the flooded grassland, with Crex crex occasionally recorded in autumn from less flooded areas. Circus macrourus is fairly common on spring and autumn passage, with small numbers wintering. Sululta is an important feeding area for Cyanochen cyanopterus, with between 35 and 850 recorded. Up to 120 Vanellus melanocephalus have been found as the plains dry out, especially between October and January.
More than 150 Bostrychia carunculata have been counted in some areas, although many more may be present at times. Between October and February, there are 2,000–4,000 waterbirds in one small area of inundation. Other species include Parophasma galinieri. Hirundo lucida breeds, and there is a good passage of Emberiza hortulana in October–November.
Key Species at Sululta Plain
Blue-winged Goose (Cyanochen cyanoptera)
Wattled Ibis (Bostrychia carunculata)
Pallid Harrier (Circus macrourus)
White-winged Flufftail (Sarothrura ayresi)
Rouget's Rail (Rougetius rougetii)
Spot-breasted Lapwing (Vanellus melanocephalus)
Great Snipe (Gallinago media)
White-collared Pigeon (Columba albitorques)
Dusky Turtle-dove (Streptopelia lugens)
Montane Nightjar (Caprimulgus poliocephalus)
Nyanza Swift (Apus niansae)
Thick-billed Raven (Corvus crassirostris)
White-backed Tit (Parus leuconotus)
Brown Woodland-warbler (Phylloscopus umbrovirens)
Brown Warbler (Sylvia lugens)
Abyssinian Catbird (Parophasma galinieri)
Montane White-eye (Zosterops poliogastrus)
Moorland Chat (Cercomela sordida)
Rueppell's Chat (Myrmecocichla melaena)
Abyssinian Slaty-flycatcher (Dioptrornis chocolatinus)
Tacazze Sunbird (Nectarinia tacazze)
Swainson's Sparrow (Passer swainsonii)
Baglafecht Weaver (Ploceus baglafecht)
Abyssinian Longclaw (Macronyx flavicollis)
Abyssinian Siskin (Serinus nigriceps)
African Citril (Serinus citrinelloides)
Brown-rumped Seedeater (Serinus tristriatus)
Streaky Seedeater (Serinus striolatus)